Tuesday, April 27, 2010

















Firstly, I would like to express my deeply thanks to God and Alhamdulillah because rewarded me an ability to complete this assignment. Besides that, I also wish to express my gratitude to Mr. Mohd Kasasi Abdul Majid for his services in providing the learning materials and the effective lectures.

Although I am busy with my teaching career, which will never been an excuse for me to produce an original copy of assignment. I am choosing to use English language as the medium for this assignment as a method to improve my English written skill. Furthermore, in order to prove to public that the Malaysian university students are able to use English as well.

For the JMS415E assignment, the first question is going to be my option. The question is about the early settlement in the thirteen colonies of the American continent by European settlers who were most of them from Britain. The early settlement had lead to the formation of a new nation and today the nation is a super power and self appointed as a world police through the new order.

United States of America considered as an important nation today by most of the world. The American President is also considered as the most power and influence person in the world. The American Dollar currency is using by the most nation in the international business’ deals. After the collapsed of the Soviet Union’s empire and the Cold War was over, the American seems to control the world’s politic without any serious challenge by any other nations.

As the most influence power in the world, the history of United States of America had directed the attention of many parties in order to study on how they are able to become as strong as today.


About 50 000 years ago, groups of peoples began to migrate to the American continent which consists various Indians ethnics such as Inca, Aztec and Maya. They were considered the aborigines of America. They came in the sizeable group which may reach thousands by each group through the Straits of Bering from the northern and they kept on sailed until Mexico. In order to study the ancient Indians, some of them had successfully achieved high civilization as well as their behavior. They were practicing the praised culture with the warm hospitality and treated the guesses with the high skill dancing.

In the fifteenth century, the European had begun their exploration in the America continent. Firstly, they assumed that the continent was the non inhabitant and they called it as the dark country until it was found by a few sailors. America was named after a Spanish sailor, Amerigo Vaspucci. Sailors such as Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, and Henry the Prince and Magellan were competed each other to find and control new territories and the local sources.

American land had attracted the attention many countries in Europe. However, the English was the pioneer inhabitant in America. They were encouraged by the Spanish whom were already built their colonies in Mexico and South America. Just like other travelers. [1]The English came by the small ship with packed of passengers. Many died caused by the illness, hit by the storm, and lost in the ocean.

The first permanent settlement for the English in America was a trade centre which found in the year 1607 in Jamestown. The area rapidly progressed as an economic centre in order to supply needed to England. As a result, number of colonies took their turn to be built and exist until they became the American continent like today[2]. Georgia was founded by the year of 1733 as a marked the completed of the formation of the thirteen colonies.

In order to understand the development of the United States, it is necessary to know something about the European which her people originally came. The American derived their basic ideals and institutions from the European background, although these were considerably modified during the experience of building a new society in the new world. Throughout her history, in fact, the United States has remained an integral part of the western, or Atlantic, civilization that originated in Europe, growing during the past three hundred years from a handful of colonies on the periphery of the western world into its strongest power and the principal guardian of its cultural heritage.[3]

I firmly agree with the formation of the thirteen colonies in America caused by the wisdom of the traders and also the internal conflicts in England herself. It was not planned by the English government at all. There were many factors which leaded to the formation of the thirteen English colonies in America. The internal problems in England itself which known as a pushing factor and the foundation of the largely and widely new world known as an attracting factor for the traders, puritans, entrepreneurs and individuals.


The expansion of economy in England especially after the Industrial Revolution had left a large impact for the English peoples, most probably the lower communities such as farmers and peasants. In the same time, the agro entrepreneurs had changed to the sheep farm according to the highly demand for the wools. Peasants lost their job as the sheep livestock no longer required lots of workers. The situations had caused increasingly unemployment. Peoples looked for other options by migrated to other places, and most probably the city and they were looking for jobs. In the year of 1606, England populations had reached the level of four millions and it was a high packed population compared to the land size and employment opportunities.

The compacted populations, highly rates of unemployment had forced the peoples to look for the new territory. The formation of the colonies seems the best way to overcome the problems. The migration to the new territory was the opportunity for the peoples to improve their living standard. The government had no longer able to spend for the people to live. Peoples independently worked on their own without any help and guide from the government.

The bias system of land holding was amongst the main caused for the migration and the formation of the colonies in America. According to the English feudal system, the society was from two major groups, such as the elites who were the landlords and ordinary peoples who were rented the land and worked as peasants or farmers on the land for the agro. The incomes were divided between the peasants and the landlords. The situation will never allow the lower groups to own the lands. The feudalism of the early middle age has been a static manpower compared to the peasant were attached to the toil and had no freedom of movement, the function of each individual were fixed heredity.[4]The practicing of feudal system had left deeply impact towards the social life. The victims of the feudal system had to pay highly rental rate, charged by various types of taxes towards the land tenants such as tithes tax system which one tenth of the agro income paid to the church. Land tenants also put lots of pressures and forced their farm workers in order to settle various types of debts. The upper classes often charge differ taxes based on their interest and needs. The poor peasants became the main target. They often threatened by the hunter and hunting dogs on the agro lands. Those who against the law had been charged with the accordance as consist in the heritage law and land owning law. All these condition tended to make the lower classes necessitous and the upper classes covetous and greedy.[5]

The critical unemployment had leaded the people to struggle for the living. They wandered into the cities looking in vain for work. Some became beggars and others stole. Many went to prison.[6] Rural England appeared to be over crowded, and its surplus population began to flow into the cities to seek jobs in industry.[7]

The critical social situation in England was guiding the formation of the colonies in America. Shortage of food, money, jobless had given negative impact and criminal rates increased. The increased of criminal rates no longer only men but also were involving the ladies in the world of crime. This was clearly shown how terrible the social situation in England at the meant time. In order to overcome the problems and seek the way out, the best way to do was migrating to the new world. That was clearly proved that the formation of colonies in America was not the proposed under the government of England but the wisdom of the English peoples.

The most important factor in order the formation the colonies in America were the religious factor. The British citizen were getting bored with the feudal rules which practiced by the Church of England. For those who against the rules were extremely punished. Religious impulse which drove thousands of men and women to the new world for the sake of conscience and conviction, in their desire to worship God in their own way, which they believed was the only true way. Pilgrims, Puritans, Roman Catholics, Quakers, Huguenots, Moravians, Mystics and Pieties all took part in the settlement of America, each group primarily to escape from a land, England, France, Germany and Austria where they were unable, either because of opposition or actual persecution, to live as they wished.[8] The statement by Charles M. Andrews had shown that most England population wished the religious freedom. They started looked for places which allowed them to practice the faith according their wished. Colonies such as Rhode Island, Maryland, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania were explored just based on the religious freedom.[9]

Based on the formation of such colonies had again shown that the formation of the thirteen colonies in America was not intentionally planned by the British government but the existence on the peoples initiative, wisdom of traders and internal problems in England.


The formation of the thirteen English colonies in America was really effective through the role by the finance companies. They provided facilities such as transportation and loans for the costs of migration to the colonies in America. Development in sea transport was also contributed in the colonies formation in America. Company of Virginia and Company of Massachusetts Bay had given the finance loans to anyone who wished to migrate to America.[10] Besides that, individuals, upper class group and landlords were also providing finance loans to the settlers with the condition such as tied up the contract by worked with them. Settlers had to pay the debts. After that, the settlers were free to own the lands.

The English colonies in America began with the formation of Jamestown, Virginia in the year of 1607 by a hundred and four peoples from England. However, the Jamestown formation had given them the very good lesson as they put the maximum profits as their main target through the gold seeking and their highly ambition made them forgot to plant the food. The situation became worst during winter as many people died in hunger and Jamestown was turning into ghost town but fortunately the presence of James Smith who’s had good relationship with the Red Indians had given new hopes to the colony’s population. The good leadership and well manage had saved Jamestown from totally destruction. The settlers failed to find either the gold or diamond. They decided to plant tobacco which promised the wide market in Europe.

The Pilgrims and Puritans were the earliest English founder in America. They managed the colonies by their own without any intention to ask help from the government of England. They formed the colonies, selected the governor by their own, drafted the constitutions by themselves and ran the economic on their own without help from any party.

The government of England too, did not either to select or rule such colonies. In the year of 1618, the Company of Virginia allowed the colony’s representatives to join the local government. The populations of the colony selected the local’s representatives in order to take care of their own welfare.[11]

The King of England used to make the chartered in order to allow individuals to form colony in America. For examples, Cecil Calvert was allowed to rent Maryland, William Penn to form Pennsylvania and the landlords were allowed to form Carolina and New Jersey.[12] The government took over New York from Holland and given to brother of King Charles 11 who was later known as King James 11 and Georgia was given to a group of people who’s known as trustees.[13]

Keith W. Olsen explained as; The fact that the king had transferred his immediate sovereignty over the new world settlement to stock companies and proprietors did not, of course mean that the colonist in America would necessarily be free of outside control. In one way or another, however, exclusive rule from the outside was broken down. From then on, it was generally accepted that the colonists had right to participate in their own government.[14]


As a result, the conclusion is the foundation and the formation of the thirteen English colonies in the American continent directly was not planned by the government of England. The colonies exist and expanded by the initiative and the wisdom of the traders which guided by the various internal conflicts in England. Internal problems which were very complicated had become the turning point in the formation of the thirteen English colonies in America.

Internal problems in England such as the economic changed, the increased of populations which were highly pact, jobless, inflations, the bias feudal system and the strictly church rules had encourage the formation the colonies in America. The internal conflicts in England had been regarded as a pushing factor. The struggle by the peasants who’s lost their jobs and poverty had leaded the increasingly the criminals in England. Most probably the legend of Robin Hood existed during the meant time.

Determinations to improve the living standard had become the attracting factor in order the formation of the thirteen English colonies in America. Stocks Company had provided the facilities for the people who wish to migrate to the new world. Besides that stories were spread such the opportunity to become wealth as soon as possible by searching the gold, diamond and jewels. Rumors about the fool Red Indians who’s willing to exchange the gold by a knife was also became the attraction for the people.

With the coming of the early English settlers to Jamestown, the tidal of immigrants to America continues. From the years 1620 until 1763, the total population in the American colony increased to more than two million people and from two settlements to thirteen colonies. The figure increased continuously and in the year 1775, the figure increased to 2.5 million. This increase was seen in the rise of birth rates and new immigration waves. Although the majority of the population was English, there were also Scottish, Irish, Germans and Africans that brought with their own social values, beliefs, language and culture. The American community since the beginning was characterized by its diversity of its people both in terms of ethnicities and religion.

The original thirteen colonies were Virginia (1607) founded by London Company, Massachusetts (1620) founded by puritans, New Hampshire (1623) founded by John Wheelwright, Maryland (1634) founded by Lord Baltimore, Connecticut (1635) founded by Thomas Hooker, Rhode Island (!636) founded by Roger Williams, Delaware (1638) founded by Peter Minuit and New Sweden Company, North Carolina (1653) founded by Virginians, South Carolina (1663) founded by Eight Nobles with a Royal Charter from Charles 11, New Jersey (1664) founded by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, New York (1664) founded by Duke of York, Pennsylvania (1682) founded by William Penn and Georgia (1732) founded by James Edward Oglethorpe.

As a conclusion, the formation of the thirteen English colonies in America was the caused by the wisdom of the traders and internal conflicts in England and not the planned by the English government.


Charles M. Andrews, The Colonial Period Of American History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1956.

Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Colonial Experience. New York: Random House, 1958.

Glenn W. Moon and John H.Mac Gowan ,Story of Our Land and People. New York: Harper and Row Publisher, 1979.

Keith W. Olsen, An Outline Of American History. New York: U.S. Information Centre, 1974.

Henry, Bamfort Parkes, The United States of America; A History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,1953.


Wikipedia, Early Settlement in America.

[1][1] Keith W.Olsen. An Outland of America History, New York, 1953, page 2

[2] ibid, page 3.

[3] Henry, Bamford Parkes, The United States of America A History ,New York, Alfred A.Knopf, 1953, page 3

[4] ibid, page 5

[5] Charles M Andrew, The Colonial Period of America History, New York, Random House, 1956, page 48

[6] Glenn W. Moon and John H. Mac Gowan, Story Of Our Land And People, page 61

[7] Henry Bamford, page12

[8] Charles M. Andrews, page 66

[9] Ibid, page 64

[10] Keith W. Olsen, An Outline Of American History, page 6

[11] Glenn W. Moon, Story of Our Land and People, page 72

[12] Ibid, page 71

[13] Ibid, page 72

[14] Keith W. Olsen, page 17.

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